(Investigator 21, 1991 November)

"The truth about UFOs is that whenever decisive evidence is found the result is always negative." (Investigator 9, p. 7)

"An unknown cause is not necessarily a flying saucer but is an unknown cause and no more until we find out what it is." (Investigator 10, p. 12)

These two generalisations were confirmed again in early September when most of the crop circles were revealed as hoaxes! Two men, D. Chorley 62, and D. Bower 67, showed how they made 300 circles in grain crops in Southern England during 13 years.

The simply pushed the wheat over with a plank held knee high! (Time, Australia, September 23) The idea of making circles has circulated and copycats are "making their rounds" in 20 countries.

Crop circle expert Pat Delgrado, whose book Circular Evidence attributed the circles to flying saucer landings, now looks pretty silly. But not as silly as the public who boosted his book to number 3 in Britain's best seller list.

Another theory — that spinning electrified air caused the circles — is not fully refuted since it may still apply to some of the crop circles. There was a "spinach circle" in France in 1963 and a circle in Sweden in 1972 and others near Tomsk (Siberia), etc.

Clever farmers charged nutters $2 each to stand in the circles, in England, and soak up alien vibrations. Other clever men catered to hippies, mediums and ufologists with mobile food vans.

Swiss farmer Eduard Meier hoaxed the world with over 700 good photos of flying saucers until 1987 when models of UFOs were found on his property and his photos were shown to be of "UFOs" supported by strings.

Photo evidence in Flying Saucers From Mars (1954), a very popular book, was exposed as a "clumsy fake". (New Scientist 1986, August 6, p. 51)

U.S. Government documents about a crashed saucer with four aliens near Roswell (New Mexico) in 1947 are a fabrication — counterfeits! (New Scientist 1987, September 24, p. 26)

The sorry story of hoax and lies had gone on and on. Some "UFO abduction" cases are really psychiatric cases. Other motivations have included money, fame, and simply the fun of being mischievous!